What is Operating System? And its types

what is Operating System

Introduction to Operating System:

Have you ever thought about how a user communicates with the computer system or a smartphone? And that too, without knowing the language, that device understands. Or how the computer system hardware understands the user’s instructions? The simple answer to these questions is the Operating System. Yes, the Operating system or OS, in short, is a software program that acts as an interface between the hardware of the computing device and the user. The computing device may be a smartphone, or a tablet, or a computer system.

Without an OS, it will be hard for the user to communicate directly with the device hardware. Moreover, when the computer starts then, the OS is first loaded on the computer. When the user gives a command to the computer what OS does, it converts the instructions from High-Level Language to Low-Level language (or machine language) so that the computer understands it. The operating system also provides a platform for the other programs and softwares to run on it smoothly.

Besides supporting the execution of the software applications, an OS also performs various types of functions. So, now without any further delay let’s talk about the functions of an OS.

Functions Of Operating System:

Processor Management:

An OS controls the processor of the computer device and it allocates the job to the processor. Also, the OS ensures that each and every process gets sufficient time from the processor to work properly on the computer.

Memory management:

An OS is responsible for the allocation and deallocation of memory. So that when some process requires memory for its functioning it gets the required memory by the OS. And if the particular process is completed then OS frees up the memory for those processes that are in need of the memory.

Device Management:

A computer system is a combination of various input and output devices. And Operating System is responsible for controlling these devices. The OS receives the requests from these devices and then performs the required tasks.

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File management:

The Operating System does file management in an organized way. Like It keeps the track of all kinds of operations that happens related to files and folders. And that includes creation, deletion, copy, transfer and storage of files and folders. It also maintains a file directory structure that facilitates the user with better and easier access to the required information.

Security:

The operating system’s security is very crucial, and it uses various techniques to keep itself secure. Firstly, it prevents unauthorized access to the user’s account by using passwords for login. Also, It has a firewall that blocks all the incoming intrusion attempts when the device is online or present in a network. Moreover, OS prevents its core components from malicious attacks. And also it displays vulnerabilities that are present in the Operating System from time to time that needs users attention.

Error Detection:

OS detects and handles the error from time to time. Sometimes, OS encounters errors because of the programs running on it crashes unexpectedly. And sometimes due to computer hardware failures, the error is being generated. After getting the error, OS displays it to the user and prompts the user to take necessary action.

Types of Operating System:

  • Batch OS
  • Distributed OS
  • Multitasking OS
  • Network OS
  • Real-OS
  • Mobile OS

Batch Operating System:

It is the first Operating System for the second generation of computers. In this kind of OS, an operator takes up similar jobs or tasks and groups them together into a batch. And then these batches are executed one by one. These batches get executed on the basis of the First Come First Serve Principle. Examples of the Batch OS are bank statements, payroll systems, etc.

What is operating System
Batch OS concept

Distributed OS:

In this type of OS, several computers are connected to a single communication channel. These connected computers are independent and have their memory unit and CPU and are commonly termed as Loosely coupled systems. In this type of OS, the system process can be of different sizes and they can perform different functions. The main benefit of this kind of Operating System is that the user can get access to the files on his/her system. But can also access files present on the other system. Not only that, the facility of remote access is also available to the connected systems on the network. Examples are LOCUS, etc.

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Multitasking OS:

The other name of Multitasking OS is Time-Sharing OS. It is known as Time-sharing OS because time is allotted to each task so that every task can function properly. A large number of users access this kind of system and they get CPU’s time for their task because of the single system. The allotted time to execute a single task is commonly termed as quantum. And when the time to execute one task is completed, the system switches to the other tasks. An example of Multitasking OS is UNIX, etc.

Network Operating System:

Network OS are those kinds of systems that run on a server and manage all networking functions. They allow users to share various resources such as files, documents, printers and other types of network functions over LAN( stands for Local Area Network) or over the private network. Examples of a Network Operating System are Microsoft Windows server 2008, Linux, etc.

Real-Time OS:

Real-Time OS basically serve Real-Time Systems. This kind of OS is implemented where many events occur in a short span of time. Real-Time OS is further classified into two types namely Hard Real-Time OS and Soft Real-Time OS. Hard Real-Time OS is basically used for those applications where even a slight delay is unacceptable. On the other hand, Soft Real-Time OS is used where a slight delay is acceptable.

Mobile OS:

This OS is mainly used for smartphones, tablets and PDAs ( short for Personal Digital Assistants ). It provides a platform on which other applications runs. Examples of Mobile OS includes Android OS, Symbian OS, ios, etc.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, we can say that Operating System is very crucial for any type of computing device. As without it, only hardware alone cannot function properly and then for accessing the hardware we have to every time write a complicated program. This ultimately reduces the efficiency of the computing device. But luckily, there is a variety of Operating Systems that helps us to do different tasks as per our needs. Let me know in the comments what you have to say about this topic. And as always Thanks for Reading this Post and don’t forget to share this post among your friends and family who probably need to know this. See you in the next post.

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